Alleged breed bulls

Will the ‘bull breed’ disappear when disappear the bullfights?? This is a question that the advocacy we do frequently and which with accusatory bias repeated in an article ò the magazine at as part of the argument to use to defend their rejects.

Race bulls disappear when bullfights disappear? Here’s a question we often animalistic and, with accusatory bias, make us taurómacos as part of the argument to use to defend their indefensible hobby.To give and to give a reasoned response, the first thing is to lay the premise if indeed there is called “bull” as animal breed, because if the answer is negative, the disjunctive “no runs no bull” lacks sense, since it can not disappear what does not exist. But not anticipate concepts, otherwise, soon, we would be involved in a tangle of words such as “kind”, “race”, “variety”, “mating”, etc., without knowing what we are talking which is what usually happens to them, the bull.

Some basics of taxonomy

The ” full name” of any animal is defined in zoology by its genus and species [1] . All animals belonging to the same genus have in common a number of similar characters (wildcards). Thus, all animals belonging to the genus Canis, as the dog and wolf, are obvious enough common characters ( in this case) but also differentiating characters [2] . Therefore, the first part of the familiaris species (Canis familiaris) and the second to the species lupus (Canis lupus) [3] . With Bovine same thing happens: Zebu cow and belong to the genus Bos, but the first is of the species taurus (Bos taurus) and the second species indicus (Bos indicus). We could therefore say, in general terms, that animals of the same species, besides having its own generic characters resemble each other as much as their parents, are distinguished from other species of the same genus, and interbreed giving fertile offspring.

But it happens very often that groups of animals of the same species have each other clearly distinguish characters that allow (for example, all dogs are of the same species, but it is possible to distinguish clearly a poodle of a mastiff). In this case we are facing a situation that requires lower levels within species: are the polytypic species. And it is in these subdivisions where taxonomic standards is darker: species can be divided into sub-species and / or varieties and sub-varieties are in or biotopes.The use of the synonym “race” for “variety” is common and correct. Following our canine example, a greyhound Canis familiaris would be a greyhound race.

These taxonomic rules, somewhat simplified to facilitate understanding, no other object for our purposes to give an overall view. But it is important to note that characters that allow classifying a group of animals within the same race must inevitably comply with the following rules:

  1. That are differentiators with respect to the other races of the species (the characters that already exist in a race does not serve to describe another).
  2. Which are stable in the sense that they are confirmed and perpetuated by inheritance (a character that can not appear in the offspring, not used to describe a race).
  3. That are amenable to scientific description (one character “provided” is not valid to mark some characteristic of a race, it is a subjective assessment).

While 3) is a rule of rational obviousness, 1) and 2) they are not only scientific concept, but also by semantic definition of the term “race”: Each of the groups in which an organic species is divided, formed by individuals who have certain common characteristics that distinguish them from those of other groups in the same category and transmitted by inheritance (María Moliner).

There is no doubt that these rules are perfectly applicable to our canine example, but so are the Bos taurus used in the fight?Before answering, let me outline the origin and evolution of these animals.

The origin of the current fighting bulls

His earliest known predecessor is the planifrons Bos, who lived during the Pliocene (final tertiary). It descend at least two species: primigenius Bos (or European uro) and nomadicus Bos (or Afro – Asian uro). Primigenius Bos, possibly crossed with some braquícera species (Shorthorn) appears on the current adc 10000-8000 Bos taurus, which begins to diversify so that already in the Neolithic period (about 4000 adc) are known no less three different subspecies. Thereafter, and because of their domesticity, you suffer constant crosses, many you see with the intervention of man, seeking varieties for meat and milk for work. And not to go back much further, and we are in the Spain of the fourteenth century, from where they are certain that the bulls for the fight butchers bought data [4] , which, because of their profession, know bulls shown bravest among the herds with trading partners. That is, bred specimens of meat breeds are chosen, not to fight. Among these Spanish races were frequent the Berrenda, the Cardena, the Salmantina, the Retinta, etc. Races are all belonging to the species Bos taurus, fixed characters over centuries and even millennia.

But some farmers realize that the cattle raising especially for the fight can be as profitable or more than meat, and the mid-eighteenth century began to appear the first herds of bulls for fighting. These cowboys selected, crossed and breeding in their races between his fingertips, and start producing bulls convicted of birth to the fight. They have thus created a new breed of Bos taurus? Now we are back to the beginning.

Is there fighting race?

The answer is simply NO, and can give arguments. Recall that in order to define a breed must meet three rules, and if it is not satisfied if only one of them can not speak of race. Well, the so-called fighting bulls does not meet any of the three:

  1. There Bulls own the hypothetical race of fighting morphological characters, as these (the morphological characters of the bulls) are indefinable by disparate. Please describe any copy of any livestock breeding of bulls for fighting, and you will see that such a description does not apply to other copies of other farms that breed specimens with the same purpose [5] . Nor are there definable characters differentiating between bulls fighting the hypothetical race over other races of the same species.
  2. Psychological differentiators characters that you’re supposed to hypothetical race of bulls (mainly difficult to define “bravura”) does not seem to perpetuate regularly with inheritance, so much so that the vast majority lacks them, according to denounce the taurómacos themselves. Otherwise, the groping would be unnecessary, and all bulls born of “bravos” parents would be equally brave. Nor do they seem to perpetuate the morphological characters: observing photographs of copies of bulls from different eras, even from the same herd, it can be seen that show very different morphological characteristics.
  3. We do not know a single scientific description of the distinguishing characteristics of the hypothetical race bulls. This despite having consulted a very extensive bibliography. The reason is simple: it can not be described what is nonexistent. So much so, that neither the Regulations of bullfights are described, merely prohibit cattle that are not registered in the Register of Livestock Companies fighting bulls are grapple, and that they have the zootechnical characteristics of livestock to they belong to [6] .

Therefore, we should say that the race fighting exists only as an idea or goal to be achieved by the farmers concerned, and that by accepting that there is a phenotype [7] ideal, which is not true while the concept of “toro bulls “, both the morphological appearance and psychologically, is changing over time according to the taurómacas fashions of the moment.

The claim that there is no fighting race, is clearly not ours alone. For example, what is possibly the most complete and documented work published on the Spanish indigenous breeds [8] , says to the effect: “The fighting livestock is in Spain a heterogeneous bovine population it is quite doubtful integrated into race, since the only characteristic that can be assigned in common is their ability to show an aggressive temperament, that fans the bullfighting call bravura … therefore, it is doubtful integrate this diverse cattle population within the concept of race . ”

What then are the bulls?

Undoubtedly, and as we have previously noted, the current Spanish cattle breeds are the result of crosses more ancient races, and these the result of crosses and / or diversification of even earlier species. That is, that at one point started from mestizos animals until their characters (those whose “creators” considered suitable for their purposes) were fixed by artificial selection to result in an actual race. The reason that the characters of indigenous breeds were fixed in their day and those of the bulls not to be sought not in the time it necessarily has to pass before it happens (with more than two centuries has been enough) but in the interests taurine own business time.

If from the outset (or even in later times) had decided the prototype bull that wanted to achieve, to be sure that today there would be a race of bull. But fashions and interests have led farmers to continue continuously crossbreeding [9] , so that the bulls today are not like those of yesterday, those the day before yesterday, nor will resemble those of tomorrow to continue on the same path.

In short: the bulls current fighting are but mestizos animals that do not belong to any particular race, and only to fix a concept as a reference, I would define as “animals belonging to various pseudorrazas of Bos taurus, with frequent feature scientifically indefinable, to express an instinctive aggression when provoked or harassed “characteristic shared with other many species and even copies of other cattle breeds.

They are sincere bullfighting care when they disappear forever?

It is clear that bullfighting what worries them is the disappearance of the runs, not the bulls: a few, simple fans because lose their divertimento; other -ganaderos, critics, matadors, etc. because they will lose their business. But neither one nor the others are interested in the fate of pseudorrazas bulls. And to make this statement I rely on the following evidence:

  1. Many pseudorrazas have been lost and others continue to lose, so caused, and therefore not put the outcry [10].
  2. Several indigenous cattle breeds (true breeds) have disappeared in recent years (campurriana, pasiega, lebaniega, etc.) and many others are in imminent danger of disappearing (albera, cacereña white, cachena, Murcia, etc.) and are not bullfighting precisely which stand for protection.

¿Pseudorazas bulls disappear when runs away?

The bulls do not exist because there are runs, but the opposite: the bullfights exist because there were bulls. Recall that primitive cattle farmers tried for centuries to eradicate this character bravo from their livestock, selecting the most gentle animals and therefore more manageable. And yet, in the eighteenth century the first cattle ranchers met for fighting gene copies whose bravura had not disappeared. Copies still exist today among the herds of beef bulls, which show an instinctive aggression when they are harassed or provoked [11] . There is, therefore, reason to doubt that the character is still perpetuated for a long time, naturally, especially if it is not selected in the opposite direction.

Therefore it is essential to ensure the conservation of native Spanish cattle breeds, true wealth and zootechnical zoological our country, rather than by pseudorrazas bulls. It is estimated that 32% of the former are in imminent danger of extinction, and 38% at moderate risk of extinction [12] .

As for the bulls pseudorrazas with ecological value much lower than before, their survival on the run is a simple matter of will.For now have to decide what you want to perpetuate phenotypes to prevent farmers to continue making them disappear. Do not forget that the bullfighting own business is right now his worst enemy. Once established the differentiating characters of the breed bulls, they should only be registered in the Stud Book of Raza Bovina Lidia lostuvieran the copies, and in a few years and yes one could speak of the breed bulls.

And there a race of fighting, rangeland protection in the effect would be cheap and simple. Much more than the protection of other endangered animals (such as lynx, wolves or bears [13] ) that has been shown possible.

And we must not forget that even without being used for fighting, current pseudorrazas bulls are economically profitable as producers of meat, or at least as profitable as many Spanish races extensive breeding [14] . That is, they are a real alternative to land production that do not allow other more delicate breeds, although handling it much more complicated.

In short: the bulls pseudorrazas does not have to disappear if bullfighting were abolished, and there is no doubt that those who now advocate its abolition that we would thereafter would fight for the protection of such beautiful and magnificent animals.

The legend of bullfighting in the House 1028

Next to the Plaza Grande trolleybus stop, there is a small square which borders Guerrero Mora building which was built by chiropractor florence sc. Juan Recalde got off at that station. He came to complete a procedure in the Historic Center and when asked if he knew the location of the House 1028, the legend, he did not answer.

Guayaquil street, the numbering of the building is Oe3-32 Mora Guerrero. Inside the building work premises (copiers and restaurants), law firms and residential tenants. But in the front facing the street Chile, on top of the building, looks over a tin plate in blue letters and a number: 1028.

Thus the Mora Guerrero building has double numbering. One in every street.

But it is the second nomenclature (1028) which brings the story of Bella Aurora to memory, as the protagonist of the legend of the black bull. According to popular tradition, she attended the Independence Square, in the historic center of Quito, to a bullfight. In colonial times, the capital did not have a bullring with infrastructure Iñaquito colossus in the north, and the concourse was used to practice bullfighting.

That day, a black bull trots. The animal looked at the audience and noticed the presence of Aurora. He rose strongly after the young, jumped the barrier and chased. Aurora, the shock, fainted and her parents took her out of the makeshift bullring and took her home.

The bull followed the family to the old two-story house. He rummaged in every corner of the house to break into the room where the girl was. The end of the story has two versions. The first is that the bull killed Aurora and the other is that the animal was gone.

But what did happen is that the house disappeared in 1954. Instead the Mora Guerrero building, seven stories was built.

Eriberto Paez, Metropolitan Heritage Institute (IMP), explains that the house is not part of the property protected by the municipality. “It is a private property in which the Heritage Institute has no authority”.

In the bakery Ambato, facing the IMP, there is a photograph dating from 1940. There, the characteristics of the time the building where the IMP works and beside him on the street Chile, you can see is the edge of a house that no more than two stories high.

Gloria Nieto live for eight years in the Guerrero Mora building. Today, at the bottom of the property, it is dedicated to selling sweets. She knew the site saves the legend of Bella Aurora. “Always come to school children ask about the legend,” says Nieto.

The legend was part of schoolbooks. These texts are reminiscent Recalde, who while enjoying a drink said: “Once, at school, read the legend in a book, but did not know it was this house.”

The history of the place

Eriberto Paez, IMP, 1028 explained that the house is known as the home of the bull. However, this association causes confusion because in Olmedo and Benalcázar streets there is a building dating from the sixteenth century, it was the home of Sebastian Benalcázar, and has a statue in the form of a bull, which has nothing to do with the legend . According to the IMP, no graphic records of what the house was before the building Guerrero Mora.

Sacred Valley – what are the bulls on the roof?

bulls on the roof - bulls of Pucara - Peru - Cusco - Sacred Valley

What are the bulls found on the roof of the houses in Peru? What do they do there?and why do they put them? … Here we look for some possible answers to these questions.

One of the things that draws attention while traveling through the Sacred Valley in Peru or moving from an archaeological site to another are a bull that people placed on the roof of their houses .

Initially I could not identify who were but stop after only observe in detail that were could see were two bulls. A hen, a basin and a ladder .

Great combination, but what are they ?.

During the stop we made in Aguas Calientes to take the train that was going to climb the town of Machu Picchu we asked a seller’s market.

” It’s for protection, who put them in the houses they make sure that nothing will happen “.

People, not I was staying with a salesperson tell you . Your job is to tell me that is to protect and not to generate a universal cataclysm at home . We agree?.

In addition, I have a theory and some staff with selling handicrafts … I tell them about it.

Returning to the subject of bulls and thinking a little better the bull apparently is admired and adored throughout Peru .

When we were in Cusco in the B & B was a red bull and Ro told me-I want a red bull.

So many things you want …

Another place where we realized that the bulls were important to the people of Peru was in Miraflores (Lima) where there is a giant bull in the Kennedy Park.

Pucara bulls in Lima
I dew hugging her new friend in Miraflores, Lima

Returning to the subject of what they are and they do there. As you can imagine I was not the version of the vendor and this is where my research on it begins.

The first thing to know is that we are called bulls of Pucara .

Pucara is 100 kilometers from the department of Puno in Peru. In this place, where it is Pucara The Great Temple, its inhabitants craftsmen and potters made ​​known bulls of Pucara .

At the train station Pucara is where craftsmen found their place to sell your bull s and that is why people passing by the idea Pucara settled, and the name of “the bulls of Pucara”.

Initially during the festivities of the original peoples of the region were not those used bulls but native animals such as the alpaca is a camelid.

It was only after the introduction of the bulls by the Spanish local decided to give a little more weight to the images they used for celebrations and camelids were changed by bravos and bulls also known as bulls.

The bulls of Pucara have tongue out can have two interpretations.

The first is that it is to represent a brave animal as fighting bulls . The other is a bit more historical and refers to that during some celebrations are the bull’s nose with spicy chilies rasped and this made ​​the bull despaired by licking the nose.

This theory is also related to eyes bulging generally Pucara bulls, ” the runaway bull and cone wide – eyed trying to ease his nose .” Finally, theories.

Interesting is also that some of these bulls is that there are several forms and colors according ask where have different meanings.

But one thing remains common in almost all the bulls that are in color are your ornaments carnival . As was done with camels took the bulls but in a somewhat wilder since these ornaments were introduced into the animal and were hanged the same .

Along with the bulls you can be found a ladder or a source . According to the observations of the first Spanish this represents the Southern Cross constellationfor Andean.

The professional association of anthropologists in Australia has an excellent study of the totemic symbolism of these cute little bulls in Matrix Roofing Melbourne as sort of experiment to their cultures and tradition.

Returning to research …

According to the general belief toritos are placed on rooftops, roofs rather to attract prosperity and good fortune to those who live in the house . This time the seller was right.

Pucara bulls - bulls peru - Roof - Roof
This is the couple that suit toritos travel souvenir

At last account we returned with more bulls than we thought. Ro took two to Asuncion and I brought two lovebirds, one for home and one to give away.

No less important fact, these friendly toritos always go in pairs , so if at some point fall into a market erased by being stingy leading in and buy the couple … Do not be thing that luck and good fortune come halfway.

“An animal does not deserve to be mocked” Anonymous attacks against bullfights

The group of ‘hacktivists’ Anonymous has launched an operation against the bullfights held in Spain, because “that reduce human beings to the quality of murderer”.

The group of hackers Anonymous in Colombia threatened to attack the websites that promote bullfighting or any other event related to bullfighting.

Through a video released on the online video platform Youtube, the group called “a strongly reject any act that endangers life or mistreat those who have no voice.”

“Anonymous relentlessly pursue and punish viciously all movements that promote torture as a way of life, like work as an art or as a fun” threat in the message a man with the mask feature film “V Vendetta “and voice recorded by a synthesizer.

And prosigue- “all pages on the internet that directly or indirectly promote bullfighting or blood celebration will be declared goal and undoubtedly will strike with the voice of the people placing the interests of the majority over any absurd tradition.”

In addition, the group of online activists on other occasions have attacked official websites of the Colombian state, calls those with “sensitivity” to join the cause and respect animals.

“We are Anonymous, We are legion, we do not forgive, not forget, we hope,” concludes the communication that other anti-bullfighting protests that have surrounded by controversy holding seasons bulls in the Colombian cities of Bogota and Medellin from mid adds January.

They opened the debate by local authorities. First, the new mayor of the Colombian capital, M-19 ex-guerrilla Gustavo Petro, who rejected the Royal Box to square Santamaria Bogota reservation to the highest authority of the city.

While Petro rethought the model of the “WordPress malware removal service“, the governor of Antioquia for the Green Party, Sergio Fajardo, he closed the tap financing bullfights with public money.

These initiatives add striking stagings, protests at the gates of the bullrings and even the germ of legislative proposals seeking a query measure the favor of Colombians by this tradition, which has historically sparked one of the biggest hobbies in the world .